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A/C Compressor & Clutch (61)

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The automobile air-conditioning compressor is the heart of the automobile air-conditioning refrigeration system, which plays a role in compressing and transporting refrigerant vapor. Compressors are divided into two types: immutable displacement and variable displacement. According to different working principles, air-conditioning compressors can be divided into fixed displacement compressors and variable displacement compressors.
According to different working methods, compressors can generally be divided into reciprocating and rotary types. Common reciprocating compressors include crankshaft connecting rod type and axial piston type, and common rotary compressors include rotary vane type and scroll type.
The automobile air-conditioning compressor is the heart of the automobile air-conditioning refrigeration system, which plays a role in compressing and transporting refrigerant vapor.
classification
Compressors are divided into two types: immutable displacement and variable displacement.
Air-conditioning compressors are generally divided into reciprocating and rotary types according to their internal working methods.
Working principle classification:

According to different working principles, air-conditioning compressors can be divided into fixed displacement compressors and variable displacement compressors.
Fixed displacement compressor
The displacement of a fixed-displacement compressor increases in proportion to the increase in the engine speed. It cannot automatically change the power output according to the demand for refrigeration, and it has a relatively large impact on the engine's fuel consumption. It is generally controlled by collecting the temperature signal of the air outlet of the evaporator. When the temperature reaches the set temperature, the electromagnetic clutch of the compressor is released and the compressor stops working. When the temperature rises, the electromagnetic clutch is engaged and the compressor starts to work. The fixed displacement compressor is also controlled by the pressure of the air conditioning system. When the pressure in the pipeline is too high, the compressor stops working.
Variable displacement air conditioning compressor
The variable displacement compressor can automatically adjust the power output according to the set temperature. The air-conditioning control system does not collect the temperature signal of the air outlet of the evaporator, but controls the compression ratio of the compressor according to the change signal of the pressure in the air-conditioning pipeline to automatically adjust the air outlet temperature. In the whole process of refrigeration, the compressor is always working, and the adjustment of refrigeration intensity is completely controlled by the pressure regulating valve installed inside the compressor. When the pressure at the high-pressure end of the air-conditioning pipeline is too high, the pressure regulating valve shortens the piston stroke in the compressor to reduce the compression ratio, which will reduce the refrigeration intensity. When the pressure at the high-pressure side drops to a certain level and the pressure at the low-pressure side rises to a certain level, the pressure regulating valve increases the piston stroke to increase the intensity of refrigeration.
Work style classification
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According to different working methods, compressors can generally be divided into reciprocating and rotary types. Common reciprocating compressors include crankshaft connecting rod type and axial piston type, and common rotary compressors include rotary vane type and scroll type.
Crankshaft connecting rod compressor
The working process of this compressor can be divided into four, namely compression, exhaust, expansion, and suction. When the crankshaft rotates, the connecting rod drives the piston to reciprocate, and the working volume formed by the inner wall of the cylinder, the cylinder head and the top surface of the piston will periodically change, thereby compressing and transporting the refrigerant in the refrigeration system. The crankshaft connecting rod compressor is the first generation compressor. It has a wide range of applications, mature manufacturing technology, simple structure, low requirements for processing materials and processing techniques, and relatively low cost. It has strong adaptability, can adapt to a wide pressure range and cooling capacity requirements, and has strong maintainability.
However, crankshaft connecting rod compressors also have some obvious shortcomings, such as the inability to achieve higher speeds, the large and heavy machines, and it is not easy to achieve lighter weight. The exhaust is not continuous, the air flow is prone to fluctuations, and there is greater vibration during work.
Due to the above-mentioned characteristics of crankshaft connecting rod compressors, few small displacement compressors have adopted this structure. At present, crankshaft connecting rod compressors are mostly used in large displacement air conditioning systems for passenger cars and trucks.
Axial piston compressor
Axial piston compressors can be called second-generation compressors. The common ones are rocker type or swash plate type compressors, which are the mainstream products in automobile air-conditioning compressors. The main components of the swash plate compressor are the main shaft and the swash plate. The cylinders are arranged circumferentially with the main shaft of the compressor as the center, and the movement direction of the piston is parallel to the main shaft of the compressor. The pistons of most swash plate compressors are made as double-headed pistons. For example, in an axial 6-cylinder compressor, 3 cylinders are at the front of the compressor, and the other 3 cylinders are at the rear of the compressor. The double-headed pistons slide one after the other in the opposite cylinders. When one end of the piston compresses the refrigerant vapor in the front cylinder, the other end of the piston sucks the refrigerant vapor in the rear cylinder. Each cylinder is equipped with a high and low pressure gas valve, and a high pressure pipe is used to connect the front and rear high pressure chambers. The swash plate and the compressor main shaft are fixed together, the edge of the swash plate is fitted in the groove in the middle of the piston, and the piston groove and the edge of the swash plate are supported by steel ball bearings. When the main shaft rotates, the swash plate also rotates, and the edge of the swash plate pushes the piston to make an axial reciprocating movement. If the swash plate rotates once, the two pistons at the front and back complete a cycle of compression, exhaust, expansion, and suction, which is equivalent to the work of two cylinders. If it is an axial 6-cylinder compressor, 3 cylinders and 3 double-headed pistons are evenly distributed on the section of the cylinder block. When the main shaft rotates once, it is equivalent to the effect of 6 cylinders.
The swash plate compressor is relatively easy to achieve miniaturization and light weight, and can achieve high-speed operation. It has compact structure, high efficiency and reliable performance. After realizing variable displacement control, it is currently widely used in automobile air conditioners.
Rotary vane compressor
There are two types of cylinder shapes for rotary vane compressors, circular and elliptical. In a circular cylinder, there is an eccentricity between the main shaft of the rotor and the center of the cylinder, so that the rotor is close to the suction and exhaust holes on the inner surface of the cylinder. In an elliptical cylinder, the main axis of the rotor coincides with the center of the ellipse. The blades on the rotor divide the cylinder into several spaces. When the main shaft drives the rotor to rotate once, the volume of these spaces continuously changes, and the refrigerant vapor also changes in volume and temperature in these spaces. The rotary vane compressor has no suction valve, because the vane can complete the task of sucking and compressing refrigerant. If there are 2 blades, the main shaft rotates once and there are 2 exhaust processes. The more blades, the smaller the discharge fluctuation of the compressor.
As the third-generation compressor, because the volume and weight of the rotary vane compressor can be small, it is easy to arrange in a small engine compartment, and combined with the advantages of low noise and vibration and high volumetric efficiency, it is also used in automobile air conditioning systems. Get a certain application. However, rotary vane compressors require high machining accuracy and high manufacturing costs.
Scroll compressor
This type of compressor can be called a fourth-generation compressor. The scroll compressor structure is mainly divided into two types: dynamic and static type and double revolution type. At present, the dynamic and static applications are the most common. Its working parts are mainly composed of a dynamic turbine and a static turbine. The structures of the dynamic and static turbines are very similar. Both are composed of end plates and involute scroll teeth extending from the end plates. , The two are eccentrically arranged with a difference of 180°. The static turbine is stationary, while the moving turbine is driven by the crankshaft to rotate and translate eccentrically under the constraint of a special anti-rotation mechanism, that is, no rotation, only revolution. Scroll compressors have many advantages. For example, the compressor is small in size and light in weight, and the eccentric shaft driving the moving turbine can rotate at a high speed. Because there is no suction valve and exhaust valve, the scroll compressor operates reliably, and it is easy to realize variable speed movement and variable displacement technology. Multiple compression chambers work at the same time, the gas pressure difference between adjacent compression chambers is small, the gas leakage is small, and the volumetric efficiency is high. Scroll compressors are widely used in the field of small refrigeration due to their compact structure, high efficiency and energy saving, low vibration and low noise, and working reliability. Therefore, they have become one of the main directions of compressor technology development.
Common malfunctions
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As a high-speed rotating working part, the air conditioner compressor has a relatively high probability of failure. Common faults include abnormal noise, leakage, and non-working.
(1) Abnormal sound: There are many reasons for abnormal sound of compressor. For example, the electromagnetic clutch of the compressor is damaged, or the internal wear of the compressor is severely worn, etc., which can cause abnormal noise.
①Compressor electromagnetic clutch is a common part of abnormal noise. The compressor often runs from low speed to high speed under high load, so the electromagnetic clutch is very demanding, and the installation position of the electromagnetic clutch is generally close to the ground, and it is often exposed to rain and soil. When the bearing in the electromagnetic clutch is damaged There will be abnormal noise.
② In addition to the problem of the electromagnetic clutch itself, the tightness of the compressor transmission belt also directly affects the life of the electromagnetic clutch. If the transmission belt is too loose, the electromagnetic clutch will easily slip; if the transmission belt is too tight, the load on the electromagnetic clutch will increase. Improper tightness of the transmission belt may cause the compressor to not work at a slight degree, and may cause damage to the compressor. When the transmission belt is working, if the compressor pulley and the generator pulley are not in the same plane, the service life of the transmission belt or the compressor will be reduced.
③The repeated pull-in of the electromagnetic clutch will also cause abnormal noise in the compressor. For example, the power generation of the generator is insufficient, the pressure of the air conditioning system is too high, or the engine load is too large, which will cause the electromagnetic clutch to repeatedly engage.
④ There should be a certain gap between the electromagnetic clutch and the compressor mounting surface. If the gap is too large, the impact will increase. If the gap is too small, the electromagnetic clutch will interfere with the compressor mounting surface when it works. This is also a common cause of abnormal noise.
⑤ Reliable lubrication is required when the compressor is working. When the compressor lacks lubricating oil, or the lubricating oil is used improperly, serious abnormal noise will be produced inside the compressor, and even wear and tear of the compressor will be caused.
(2) Leakage   Refrigerant leakage is the most common problem in air conditioning systems. The leakage of the compressor is usually at the junction of the compressor and the high and low pressure pipes, where it is usually troublesome to check because of the installation position. The internal pressure of the air-conditioning system is very high. When the refrigerant leaks, the compressor lubricating oil will be lost, which will cause the air-conditioning system to not work or poor lubrication of the compressor. There are pressure relief protection valves on the air conditioner compressors. The pressure relief protection valves are usually for one-time use. After the system pressure is too high for pressure relief, the pressure relief protection valve should be replaced in time.
(3) Not working   There are many reasons why the air-conditioning compressor does not work, usually because of related circuit problems. It is possible to preliminarily check whether the compressor is damaged by directly supplying power to the electromagnetic clutch of the compressor.
Air conditioning maintenance precautions
Safety issues that should be paid attention to when handling refrigerants
(1) Do not dispose of refrigerant in a confined space or near an open flame;
(2) Protective glasses must be worn;
(3) Avoid liquid refrigerant from entering the eyes or splashing on the skin;
(4) Do not point the bottom of the refrigerant tank to people. Some refrigerant tanks have emergency venting devices at the bottom;
(5) Do not put the refrigerant tank directly in hot water whose temperature is higher than 40℃;
(6) If the liquid refrigerant enters the eyes or touches the skin, do not rub it, rinse it with plenty of cold water immediately, go to the hospital for professional treatment immediately, and do not try to handle it yourself.

The main reasons for the slippage of the electromagnetic clutch of the automobile air-conditioning compressor are as follows:
1. The electromagnetic clutch of the compressor slips, which can start the engine and turn on the air conditioner for inspection.
2. If the electromagnetic clutch has abnormal noise or slipping, the electromagnetic clutch should be disassembled and inspected.
3. If the working surface of the clutch pressure plate and pulley is not severely worn, grind the right side on a grinder; if it is severely worn out and deformed, a new electromagnetic clutch should be installed. The compressor is damaged and internal leakage can be checked with a manifold pressure gauge.

4. If the pressure on the low pressure side is too high, the pressure on the high pressure side is too low, and there is abnormal knocking sound when the compressor is running, the temperature difference between the high and low pressure sides of the compressor body is not large, indicating that the compressor has broken valves, damaged bearings or gaskets If it is damaged or other faults, the compressor should be disassembled and repaired or replaced.

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