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Reflective Material (180)

Reflective Material,reflective material name,reflective material for car windows,reflective material for grow tent,reflective material jacket
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Reflective materials, also called retro-reflective materials, retro-reflective materials, are widely used in various road traffic safety facilities such as traffic signs and markings, raised road signs, contour signs, traffic cones, anti-collision tubes, as well as automobile number plates, clothing, shoes, hats, etc. Fire protection, railways, water transportation, mining areas, etc., can be divided into reflective materials for traffic signs, reflective materials for road markings, raised road signs, contour signs, and reflective materials for clothing.
The realization of the retroreflective function of light is achieved through various reflective materials with retroreflective properties. Most of these materials are not formed naturally in nature, but rely on human creativity to invent and synthesize new substances acquired. Retroreflective technology brings together a variety of disciplines and technologies such as optics, materials science, mathematics, and organic chemistry.

Reflective materials are based on the principle of retroreflection, which can use the illumination of car lights and the reflection of light to "light up" the front, increasing the distance for the driver to find objects in front, so as to give the driver more time to take corresponding safe measures Measures. Compared with other types of road traffic safety measures, compared with the cost of reducing road traffic accident injuries, the application of retroreflective technology is undoubtedly a low-cost and effective solution. In a sense, the application of retroreflective materials is a more proactive safety precaution. Compared with measures aimed at reducing the degree of injury after an accident, such as guardrail protection, it has more safety value and is more effective. Reflect the love for life. [1]
Reflective film
Reflective film (4 sheets)
Beginning in the 1930s, in addition to the rapid use of various new retroreflective materials created by the science and technology industry to reduce road traffic injuries as soon as possible, mankind also began to gradually initiate the application of retroreflective technology to improve road traffic safety conditions. Research.
Traffic sign reflective film
Reflective film is a retroreflective material that has been made into a thin film and can be used directly, and it is also the most widely used retroreflective material. In 1937, the world's first reflective film was born in the laboratory of 3M Company in the United States. This is the starting point of the history of large-scale application of reflective film for traffic signs. In 1939, a sign made of Scotchlite TM reflective film was used for the first time in the open air on the highway side of Minnesota, USA. Since then, a new era of a series of reflective products used for traffic signs has been opened, and a new era has been opened. A brand new traffic safety industry. This year, the National Standard for Traffic Signs in the United States (Manual of United Traffic Control Devices, 1939, 1939 edition of the United States) officially stipulated that reflective films should be used to make traffic signs. [3]
Since then, with the development of the chemical industry, especially synthetic resins, various research and development institutions have continued to research and innovate, using glass bead technology, synthetic resin technology, thin film technology and coating technology to successively develop a series of high-quality retroreflective products.
Beginning in the 1940s, this initially manufactured reflective film was dubbed "engineering-grade" reflective film, and it was widely used in road traffic signs. Since then, a series of products such as reflective films used in clothing and other personal safety protection fields have also been developed with the advent of synthetic resins and the needs of social development. Since then, with a series of research results in material technology and optical technology, especially the emergence of microprism reflective materials, this kind of reflective materials, which were originally mainly used for traffic signs, began to be gradually replaced by newer and better reflective materials.
There are many ways to classify reflective films. Among them, the generally accepted classification principle is based on the basic structure of the retroreflective unit and the sorting method based on the retroreflective coefficient of the front luminosity performance of the reflective film. However, considering the different processes of the reflective film, some are specifically designed to solve the non-frontal retroreflective brightness, some are both performances, and some are for the visual recognition needs under severe weather conditions, so this classification method is also There are shortcomings. Therefore, it is very necessary to be familiar with and master the application conditions and design functions of various reflective films.
In traditional custom, according to the structure of the reflective unit of the reflective film, the reflective film is divided into two categories, glass bead reflective film and micro-prism reflective film. Each type of reflective film also includes many types, such as micro-prism reflective film. Due to the use of more advanced technology, the material selection and prism structure have undergone many changes, which can cope with more traffic demands. According to the form and technical characteristics of the prism, the micro-prism reflective film can be divided into the truncated prism reflective film with good long-distance retroreflectivity, the truncated prism reflective film with good short-distance and large-angle retroreflective performance, and The all-prism reflective film required by the aspect, the fluorescent all-prism reflective film that has good performance in daytime and harsh weather conditions, the prism-type reflective film that meets the traditional engineering-grade retroreflective parameters, etc.
Glass bead type reflective film appeared earlier, but its process changes are relatively few. There are mainly two types, one is lens-embedded reflective film, which is customarily called engineering-grade reflective film; the other is sealed capsule type, usually called It is a high-strength reflective film. For application needs, it should be noted that in the lens-embedded reflective film, due to its long history of appearance, different manufacturers use the diameter and diameter of the lens in the long manufacturing process. The density and thickness of the weather-resistant coating are different, and many kinds of reflective films have been produced, such as super-engineering reflective film. It is mainly based on the engineering-grade reflective film, using higher quality glass beads, and increasing the density of the glass beads. Large, to increase some brightness; commonly known as economic grade reflective film, mainly produced in China, basically based on the engineering-grade reflective film technology, achieved by reducing the number and density of lenses (glass beads), these two Reflective film, economic-grade reflective film, its reflection ability can not meet the needs of traffic safety, more used in the commercial field, it is rarely included in the international traffic safety standards.
When it comes to the scientific classification method of reflective film, we cannot leave the reflective film standard which has great guiding significance for the application of reflective film. Among the reflective film standards of various countries in the world, the standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials, the Australian and New Zealand standards, and the US Federal Highway Administration’s guidance on retroreflective materials for traffic signs, etc., the research and application of retroreflective materials in the world to make traffic signs improves Traffic safety has played a positive guiding role. Below, we will introduce them one by one.
The American Association of Materials and Testing is an international organization of material testing standards with a long history. Its full English name is Association of Standard Testing of Materials, or ASTM for short. It was established to provide a series of material testing standards to the scientific community and industry. , In order to realize the definition of new materials, and provide a technological platform for mutual exchanges for the scientific community all over the world. Provide technical support for testing standardization for retroreflective materials, as well as many materials in various industries such as oil, natural gas, and chemical industries.
In view of such technical tracing, ASTM's testing standards for retroreflective materials have also been accumulatively carried out with the invention and use of retroreflective materials. Every time a new material appears, as long as this material appears for a period of time and is When the manufacturer submits an application to ASTM, its committee will authorize the classification of this material and establish testing standards. It is for this reason that in the ASTM4956 reflective film standard, there are as many as 11 types of reflective film, and they are still continuing; on the other hand, the ASTM standard is more like a catalog of retroreflective materials. It is not a standard that can help understand the application methods and problems of reflective film, because when ASTM initially classified these materials, it did not consider the performance and needs of the driver.
For this reason, in order to provide more effective technical support and guidance to their own transportation engineering construction units, all developed countries in the world have set up their own national technical standards instead of directly following the ASTM classification of reflective materials.

The reflective film is a layer structure composed of multiple layers of materials with different properties. Different reflective films have different layer structures.

Figure 3 is the basic structure diagram of the earliest glass bead reflective film. It can be seen from Figure 3 that the reflective film is generally composed of surface layer (protective film), reflective layer (functional layer), base layer (carrier layer), and adhesive Layer and bottom layer (protective layer) and other layers of different materials composed of film structure objects. The surface layer of the reflective film is generally made of a resin film with good light transmission and weather resistance. The reflective layer has different composition materials according to different types of reflective films. There are micro glass beads, micro prisms or metal reflective coatings, etc., and there are many base layers. It is a film made of resin organic compounds. The adhesive layer is usually epoxy resin glue, and the bottom layer is a protective layer made of thick paper.
Table 1 shows the structure diagrams of various reflective films. It can be seen that the types of reflective films are different, and their constituent materials and structures are also different.
Table 1 Diagram of the main structure of various reflective films

The primary function of the reflective film is to improve the surface properties of traffic signs, so that they can adapt to all-weather traffic needs and improve road safety operating conditions.
Due to the differences in the reflective properties of different types of reflective films, when it is specifically applied to the production of traffic signs, it is necessary to carry out corresponding specifications according to the set function and purpose of the signs. The science of studying this kind of application specification is regarded as an important part of traffic control and safety technology by safety engineering professionals all over the world.
Traffic control and safety technology has been developed for hundreds of years. Since the first human traffic sign standard was published in the United Kingdom in 1908, many countries in the world have continued to invest a lot of scientific research and technical resources to analyze and master the role and value of retroreflective technology in the field of traffic safety. In this regard, the forefront is the developed countries such as Europe and the United States. Their research results have helped China in a short period of more than 10 years to go through the process of starting from nothing in a short period of more than 10 years-China's transportation. The research on sign reflective technology started in the late 1980s, with the national standard for traffic signs GB5768 and the national standard for reflective materials for traffic signs GB18833 as the main technical specifications. In many respects, these standards are still in the stage of a large number of improvements and developments. The relevant scientific application methods and effect research conclusions require a lot of time and practice.
Lens embedded (engineering grade) reflective film
The lens-embedded reflective film, commonly known as "engineering grade", is the first type of glass bead reflective film. It is customarily called the "engineering grade" series of reflective films in the industry. It was invented in 1937. The name "Engineering Grade" comes from the previously registered English product name "Engineering Grade", which is the name of the company inventing the product. Later, many scientific research institutions directly used this product name to represent the name of the experimental material, so the name became a common usage in the traffic engineering world around the world, and its frontal brightness (0.2º/-4 º) is generally below 100cd/lx/m . It was not until November 2008 that a new prism-type engineering-grade reflective film (also called Super Engineering Grade, EGP in English, Engineering Grade Prismatic) developed based on the characteristics of the reflective brightness of the engineering-grade reflective film came out. Breakthrough and enrich the meaning of engineering-grade reflective film.
The traditional engineering-grade reflective film was introduced to China in the 1980s. In the 1990s, a number of manufacturers in China began to produce this kind of reflective film.
Engineering-grade reflective film adhesives are generally divided into two types: pressure-sensitive and heat-sensitive, both of which can be pasted. Using the same type of ink using screen printing technology, various patterns can also be printed on it. The applicable base plate for engineering-grade reflective film is aluminum plate, and the construction operation temperature is generally required to be above 18 degrees Celsius. If the temperature is too low, it will affect the performance of the adhesive and cause the life of the logo to be damaged. Fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of the structure of the lens-embedded reflective film.

The service life of engineering-grade reflective film is generally 3 to 7 years, and the two degrees (0.2º/-4 º) of the front side of the white film is generally about 100cd/lx/m, depending on the manufacturer. Some manufacturers only provide reflective film for 7 years, and the brightness retention value after 7 years is at least 50% of the initial brightness value. Some manufacturers only provide 3-year and 5-year quality guarantees. This is mainly caused by the different weather resistance of the reflective film. The life span of the reflective film made of the same raw material is different when used under different geographical and climatic conditions.
One thing that needs more attention is that the brightness stability, brightness intensity and weather resistance of engineering-grade reflective film are some important basis for investigating the production quality of this kind of reflective film. In these links, cutting corners and materials in any link can reduce the cost of the product, but its quality will also be greatly reduced, especially the gap in weather resistance and luminosity parameters, which can clearly reflect the advantages and disadvantages of engineering-grade reflective film .
Lens-sealed (high-strength) reflective film
The lens-sealed reflective film is a durable glass bead reflective film, which is commonly called "high-strength" reflective film in the industry. It was successfully developed in 1972. "High Intensive Beads" comes from English High Intensive Beads (HIB for short). It was originally the special name of the product development company. Until 1985, starting from Japan, companies in some countries and regions began to produce this kind of reflective film. The term "high-strength grade" began to be used by other factories one after another, and gradually became a unified name for this special structure of reflective film. Considering that most of the readers of this book are industry insiders, the name of high-strength level has become a common name in the industry, so this book starts from the point of easy understanding of readers. In the following chapters, "high-strength level" is also used as the main title.
This high-strength reflective film manufactured by qualified processes and materials has at least twice the reflectance coefficient of engineering-grade reflective film. Its internal vacuum support structure also solves the problem of condensation on the sign due to temperature changes, thereby further improving The reflective ability of the material. When the material came out in the 1970s, it complied with the need for technological advancement with increasing speeds and better road conditions, and was successfully used to make traffic signs, saving a lot of lives. Compared with the engineering-grade reflective film, the high-strength reflective film makes the logo more clearly visible even when the sign is at a larger angle and in bright areas, effectively predicting the dangerous situation of the road ahead of the driver.
The high-strength reflective film adopts glass bead reflective technology. Due to its innovation in product structure, it has incomparable reflective brightness and angle performance than engineering-grade reflective film. At the same time, it is also due to the high-strength self-structure. Product defects that are difficult to overcome, such as products are brittle and easy to tear, wrinkles, bubbles, surface honeycomb protrusions, high production energy consumption, large emissions, etc. The limitations of glass bead technology also hinder the improvement of high-strength grades to higher brightness and better angularity.
High-strength reflective film is also a material with adhesive, generally divided into two types: pressure-sensitive and heat-sensitive. Various patterns can be made using the same type of ink using screen printing technology. High-strength reflective film is generally made of resin film with good light transmission and weather resistance as the surface layer, the second layer is a vacuum layer, the third layer is embedded micro glass beads, the fourth layer is metal reflective coating, and the fifth layer is resin The carrier layer, the sixth layer is an adhesive, and the seventh layer is a protective layer of backing paper. Figure 5 is a schematic diagram of the structure of a high-strength reflective film, and Figure 6 is a typical appearance of the high-strength reflective film.

High-strength reflective film is mainly used to make main traffic signs such as guide signs, prohibition signs, warning signs and indication signs. After the advent of high-strength reflective film, the time for drivers to identify traffic signs has been shortened, and the distance between signs and obstacles in front of them has been significantly advanced, greatly increasing the time to take safety precautions, reducing the incidence of night road traffic accidents, and improving traffic safety Sex. According to empirical research, the brightness of high-strength retroreflective materials is significantly higher than that of engineering-grade retroreflective materials. Since the 1990s, this kind of high-strength retroreflective material has been widely used on highways in China.
Since then, with the improvement of vehicle performance and road construction technology, the urban environment has undergone tremendous changes, highways and high-speed vehicles have increased significantly, urban light sources are numerous and complicated, and wide roads have emerged endlessly. New requirements. Some shortcomings of high-strength reflective materials, especially in the large-angle reflective performance and processing technology and cost, can no longer be compared with the newly emerging prism technology, and are gradually being replaced.
In the second half of the 1990s, especially in the 21st century, the United States and Europe have fully initiated the process of replacing high-strength materials with prism-level materials. In particular, the "super-strong" retroreflective material that came out in 2004 uses prism technology, which not only has a qualitative improvement over the high-strength grade in terms of reflective performance, processing methods, energy saving and emission reduction, and the price and cost are not lost. Since then, as the birthplace of high-strength materials, the United States no longer produces such materials, making China the only place where high-strength reflective materials are produced.
The life of high-quality high-strength reflective film is generally 10 years, and the front brightness of the white film (0.2º/-4 º) is generally above 250cd/lx/m. Under normal use conditions, the brightness retention value after 10 years is at least the initial brightness 80% of the value, the substrate for high-strength reflective film is aluminum plate, and the operating temperature is usually above 18 degrees Celsius.
Micro prism reflective film
Figure 7
Figure 7
The retroreflective principle of the microprism reflective film is different from the engineering grade (lens embedded) and high-strength (lens-sealed) reflective films. Both the engineering and high-strength reflective films use the glass bead reflection principle, while the reflection of the microprism reflective film The principle is to use the refraction and reflection of microprisms. The main representative products of micro-prism reflective film can be divided into four categories in terms of retroreflective characteristics and structure: truncated prisms that focus on long-distance recognition, truncated prisms that focus on short-distance and large-angle reading, and long-distance Full prisms with distance recognition performance and short-distance reading performance, and a new prism-type reflective film combining these prism technology and new material technology. They are new types of reflective materials that have emerged in recent years to meet the needs of different levels in response to the diversification of application levels.
The long-distance truncated micro-prism reflective film is the first generation of micro-prism reflective film. It came out in the early 1980s and its English name is Long Distance Prismatic (LDP). The first generation of diamond and crystal grades can be seen in the market. , Starlight grade, are these products. The front brightness of this kind of reflective film is very high. The front brightness of the white film (0.2º/-4º) is generally 800cd/lx/m and generally above 800, and the distribution of retroreflected light has no directionality. The reflective film is horizontal or vertical. There is little difference in the reflective effect of the film. However, under a large incident angle and observation angle, the reflected brightness will be greatly attenuated. Figure 7 shows the structure of this type of reflective film under the microscope. This kind of reflective film that highlights the frontal retroreflectivity is more suitable for use as contour marks, warning posts, etc., and is not suitable for traffic signs that require more visibility within the reading distance. This early prism reflective film was a phased result of design and research and development at that time. The prism structure at that time could not solve the problem of retroreflective brightness at a large observation angle.
Figure 8 The structure of a large-angle truncated microprism
Figure 8 The structure of a large-angle truncated microprism
After the first generation of microprism reflective film came out, people discovered a problem. When the motor vehicle really entered the reading distance of the sign, that is, in the case of a large observation angle, the brightness of the sign was attenuated so much that the Within the reading distance, the content of the logo cannot be read, or it takes longer to read. As a result, people use the large-angle truncated microprism structure to manufacture a large-angle truncated microprism reflective film to solve the problem of keeping the mark two degrees within the reading distance. Therefore, this large-angle reflective film is also a special prism-type reflective film described in terms of reflective performance.
Compared with the long-distance truncated microprism reflective film, the frontal brightness of the large-angle truncated microprism reflective film is relatively low, but at a large incident angle and observation angle, its reflective brightness will not be greatly attenuated. Large angles correspond to places with multiple lanes and many curves, as well as signs with complex content and longer reading time. Therefore, this kind of reflective film is suitable for traffic signs on urban roads and wide roads. Although its frontal reflection brightness at a long distance is average (only relative to the long-distance prism level, it can still be more than doubled compared with the high-intensity frontal brightness), but at short distances (required to read the logo content) Distance), its reflective brightness is much higher than that of long-distance reflective film. Its directionality is stronger than that of the long-distance reflective film, and it can be adjusted according to the position and direction of the sign to meet the needs of reading. Figure 8 shows the structure of the VIP large-angle truncated microprism under the microscope. VIP (Visual Impact Prismatic), translated as a visual impact prism, came out in the late 1980s and was once widely used. After the emergence of the full prism technology, production was discontinued.
The all-prism reflective film is a prism-type retroreflective material completed with a full prism structure, which removes the non-reflective part of the traditional micro prism structure, so that the reflective film is all composed of a prism structure that can achieve total reflection. It combines the two characteristics of long-distance and large-angle micro-prism reflective film, while maintaining large frontal brightness and easy discovery at long distances, it improves the reflective brightness at a large incident angle and observation angle at a distance of 50-250 meters. .
Figure 9 Electron micrograph of the surface structure of the all-prism reflective film
Figure 9 Electron micrograph of the surface structure of the all-prism reflective film
The advent of this kind of all-prism reflective film breaks through the academic barrier that the prism-type reflective film cannot take into account both the long-distance reflective ability and the short-distance reflective ability. According to the path and mode of vehicle light propagation, it finds the angle (incidence angle and observation angle) required for the logo recognition within the ideal distance, and then determines the non-reflective area on the traditional truncated microprism, and then removes these non-reflective areas. The area is removed, thereby realizing 100% of the reflective structure area on the reflective film per unit area, which is the so-called "total reflection".
Of course, this is only 100% theoretical reflection efficiency. In actual production, due to the limitations of materials and other conditions, 100% of the brightness of the reflective car lamp cannot be achieved. The best reflection efficiency is 58%, which is much higher than other types of reflective films, such as high-intensity reflective efficiency. Only 23%. And from the observation angle of 0.2º to 2º, the retroreflective efficiency can always be maintained above 50%. Figure 9 is an electron micrograph of the all-prism reflective film.
On the current all-prism reflective film, after each microcrystalline cube is connected and arranged according to a certain rule, there will be more than 930 units on a square centimeter of material area to control the path of light entering and reflecting. The lower layer of the microcrystalline cube corner body is sealed to form an air layer, which uses the phenomenon of light diffraction to form total internal reflection of the incident light, so that the most superior light reflection effect can be achieved without the use of a metal reflective layer. Compared with the traditional engineering and high-strength reflective films, the reflective film made of wear-resistant and high-hardness polycarbonate material and microcrystalline cube technology has not only doubled its reflective performance, but also has large-angle reflective performance. Great improvement. The front brightness of this kind of all-prism reflective film is more than six times that of engineering grade. The front brightness of white film (0.2º-4º) is generally more than 600 cd/lx/m, which is more than twice that of high-intensity level. The retroreflective performance (at 0.5º and 2º) is about two to four times higher.
Figure 10 Comparison of retroreflective performance of various reflective films at different angles
Figure 10 Comparison of retroreflective performance of various reflective films at different angles
All-prism reflective film is a kind of traffic sign material suitable for all types of highways and urban roads. The application in the West has gradually replaced the investment and consumption of sign lighting. When making road signs, if you start with long-term investment and safety benefits, the all-prism reflective film can replace any grade of reflective film. Under normal conditions of use, the total prism reflective brightness retention value after ten years of use is at least 80% of the initial brightness value, that is, ten years later, it can still greatly exceed the retroreflectivity of the new high-strength and engineering-grade reflective films Performance is a more economical choice from the perspective of scientific development. At the same time, if the same type of ink is used, combined with screen printing technology, all kinds of traffic signs with patterns can be produced.
The full prism reflective film is mainly used in road signs, prohibition signs, warning signs and indication signs, etc., especially signs that require a long time to read, signs with complex visual environment, and wide roads and high-grade highways, and its performance is particularly good prominent. The base plate for diamond reflective film is aluminum plate, and the processing temperature is generally required to be above 18 degrees Celsius.
Figure 10 is the comparison of the retroreflective brightness values of engineering grade reflective film, high-intensity grade, truncated prism and full prism at various angles. With the advancement of technology, the luminosity performance of all angles of the all-prism reflective film has been significantly improved.
In recent years, the prism-type reflective film, without major changes in the structure, has shifted the focus of innovation to the realization of richer light control effects and rich material characteristics through different material processing technologies. Complete different retroreflective abilities, different flexibility, in order to meet the needs of different levels. Reflective films commonly known as "super-strong", "super-strong", and prism-type engineering grade (new super-engineering grade) in the market are all new forms of prism-type reflective films. The truncated prism structure of these reflective films is basically the same, but the material processing technology is different, forming different reflective effects, superior weather resistance and processing adaptability to meet different application requirements.
Figure 11 Schematic diagram of the reflective film structure of the prism structure
Figure 11 Schematic diagram of the reflective film structure of the prism structure
Among them, especially the super-strength reflective film, since it conforms to the market demand, it has quickly become popular after it came out in the early 21st century. The original intention of the design is to take advantage of the prism structure to ensure that it can surpass all the functions of the high-strength reflective film, and to have better retroreflective performance under multi-angle conditions and a more superior cost performance.
These new prism reflective films have very high strength and thickness, which eliminates the defects such as easy tearing, wrinkles, bubbles, and surface honeycomb protrusions of the reflective film during logo processing, greatly simplifies the difficulty of construction and makes the logo processing process easier Control, reduce the loss caused by poor processing. At the same time, due to the large surface brightness factor of the reflective film, the retroreflective performance is greatly improved. It not only has the superior retroreflective coefficient at long distances, but under the general requirements of visual recognition, the large observation angle at close distance can still keep the signs with better brightness, so that the drivers can find the signs earlier, and Read the content of the sign more clearly at close range. Fig. 11 is a schematic diagram of the structure of these prism structure reflective films. Different retroreflective effects can be formed through the difference in material processing of the resin layer and the cubic crystal surface.
The surface layer of this kind of reflective film is mostly made of polycarbonate material, which is not only more wear-resistant and scratch-resistant, but also can be matched with silk screen ink, and can also be applied to thermal transfer printing to make colorful traffic signs. At the same time, due to the improvement of the surface brightness factor, the signs are more eye-catching and bright in the daytime, and they also have better weather resistance.
It is worth mentioning that in the 2008 Beijing Olympics, which has strict requirements on traffic signs in all aspects, the Beijing traffic management agency used this reflective film to complete the preparations for the event at high quality and high speed, making China a history of the Olympic Games. The first country to use this kind of reflective film to make special lane warning signs. From one aspect, this also shows that the craftsmanship of Chinese traffic signs has rapidly approached the international advanced level.

In Figure 12, a is the sign of the super reflective film being installed, and the color part on it is printed by the printer. In Figure 12, b is the super reflective film being printed. The biggest difference on the surface of the super reflective film is the unique stripe pattern c in Figure 12. This is a feature that other reflective films do not have.
The prism-type engineering-grade reflective film, which came out in 2008, is also a brand-new product concept. While ensuring the front brightness performance of the traditional engineering-grade reflective film, it has made considerable progress in the large-angle reflective performance. The retroreflective ability even exceeds the parameters of the high-strength reflective film. At the same time, due to the use of polycarbonate material , So that this kind of reflective film has the ability of hard and high weather resistance, can greatly improve the construction efficiency, and provide more technical options for the application and promotion of retroreflective materials.
The reflective film after the full prism structure has not yet made a breakthrough in the structure. However, there is still a lot of room for development in the cost, material and chemical coating of the reflective film. Fluorescent reflective film is a typical case of improving the coating technology to further optimize the function of the reflective film. The fluorescent full prism reflective film is a reflective film with special optical effects that combines special fluorescent materials with excellent weather resistance (generally fluorescent materials have poor weather resistance) and the full prism technology. There is a unique weather-resistant fluorescent factor in the fluorescent reflective film, which can increase the degree of activity after absorbing the energy of visible light and part of the invisible light in the spectrum, thereby converting the energy of invisible light into the energy of visible light, making the chromaticity of the reflective film The luminosity is more powerful during the day, thereby increasing the significance of the sign.
Since the fluorescent reflective film can absorb and convert the energy of invisible light in the spectrum, it can have better chromaticity and luminosity, which is so-called more vivid. This kind of fluorescent reflective film, in bad weather conditions and when the sunlight is not so strong, is much brighter than ordinary colors, and it is easier to attract people's attention. The use of this fluorescent reflective film in traffic safety equipment products is of great significance to ensure driving safety in severe weather such as dawn, dusk or rain, snow, and fog. Fluorescent full prism reflective film has been widely used in foreign countries, such as fluorescent warning signs, fluorescent linear contour signs, fluorescent signs in road construction areas, etc. The yellow-green fluorescent all-prism reflective film has been approved by the Federal Highway Administration for traffic signs in pedestrians, non-motorized vehicles and school areas; the orange fluorescent all-prism reflective film is mostly used in construction area signs. Countries around the world have also issued corresponding standard specifications and technical conditions for fluorescent reflective films. Figure 13 is a comparison of fluorescent and non-fluorescent reflective films.
Figure 13 Comparison of fluorescent and non-fluorescent reflective film
Figure 13 Comparison of fluorescent and non-fluorescent reflective film (6 photos)
In China, since 2006, fluorescent yellow reflective film and fluorescent yellow-green reflective film have begun to have some applications. On the rainy and foggy section of the expressway from Sichuan to Mount Emei, the accident-prone section of the Beijing Badaling Expressway, and the Olympic lane on the Fifth Ring Road in Beijing, you can see the detailed acceptance of this new technology by the traffic engineering community in China. And application play. See Figure 14 and Figure 15. Figure 14 The sidewalk warning signs near the Beijing Olympics water stadium use fluorescent yellow-green full prism reflective materials to improve the visual recognition of the warning signs. Pay attention to the difference in luminosity and chromaticity of the warning signs that use ordinary reflective film next to it. In order to ensure Olympic traffic, the Fifth Ring Road is installing a vehicle speed indicator with a fluorescent yellow-green full prism reflective film (Figure 15). It is worth noting that under backlighting, other traffic signs have poor chromaticity and luminosity, but fluorescence The reflective film area of the yellow-green prism is very eye-catching [4].
It should be noted that fluorescent reflective film is a combination of weather-resistant fluorescent factor and prism reflective film. Advertising materials that use lemon yellow printing do not belong to this technical category. Although the surface looks similar in color spectrum, there is no fluorescent reflective film. All technical characteristics of

Traffic marking materials and their classification:

There are many ways to classify road traffic marking materials. In addition to dividing by setting method, use function, and form, they can also be classified according to the visual recognition function of the marking. They can be divided into three types: reflective, non-reflective, and light-storing class. Reflective marking material is premixed with retroreflective material in the index line material or sprayed with retroreflective material during marking construction; reflective marking also includes dry reflective marking line and all-weather reflective marking line; non-reflective type There is no retroreflective material in the marking material or the surface is not sprinkled with retroreflective material; the light-storing marking material is the indicator line material containing light-storing powder, in the case of light, the light-storing powder absorbs and stores light energy, when the environment When the light is below a certain level, the energy stored in the phosphor is emitted in the form of light.
When it comes to the characteristics of the reverse cursor line, it is inseparable from the type of paint that constitutes the reverse cursor line. Road traffic markings in my country are divided according to the material of the marking paint. There are four types: solvent-based, hot-melt, water-based paint and two-component markings, and the other is the reflective marking tape that has just begun to be used. According to my country's "Pavement Marking Coatings" [5] standard (JT/T 280-2004), road traffic marking materials are divided into solvent-based road traffic marking materials, hot-melt road traffic marking materials, and two-component There are four types of road traffic marking materials and water-based road traffic marking materials.
Solvent-based coatings, or the first road traffic marking coatings used, mainly include acrylic type and chlorinated rubber type. After years of development and application, it has been generally familiar and accepted by people. Generally speaking, the construction is simple, convenient, easy, and adaptable. The secondary coating of the old marking is relatively easy, and it can be directly coated on the old coating. The new coating has fast drying time, low price, easy repair, and low one-time investment. However, due to its short life span and the volatilization of a large number of organic solvents in the coating during construction, it seriously pollutes the environment and endangers the health of the constructors. The increasingly stringent environmental protection requirements and limited service life have greatly restricted the development of this type of coating. To show a downward trend in applications, such products still have a certain market for roads in small and medium-sized towns and rural roads in some economically underdeveloped areas.
Hot-melt marking paint was first developed in Europe in the 1950s. Because of its beautiful line shape, durability and rapid development. In recent years, hot-melt marking coatings have been widely used on high-grade highways and urban roads in my country. The high-quality products of this type of coatings have good reflective effect, good durability, long service life, and fast drying time; but It also has its weaknesses, mainly due to the need for special heating equipment during construction, large emissions and high construction costs, accounting for almost 1/3 of the total cost, construction efficiency is also low, markings are difficult to recoat, and pollution resistance is affected by the quality of construction. And the quality of the pavement has a big impact, sometimes not ideal.
Water-based road traffic marking coatings have been developed for a long time in the United States, Western Europe, etc., and have been used to The environment brings pollution and will not endanger the health and safety of construction personnel; there is no need to clean up old lines, repair and update are safe and convenient; mechanical equipment is easy to clean. The main shortcomings are: water resistance and adhesion to the concrete floor need to be further improved. The construction is greatly affected by the environment and weather. The temperature can only be above 10 degrees, the relative humidity is below 80%, no rain within 24 hours, and no water on the road. And sandy soil.
Two-component road traffic marking materials are also known as reactive road traffic marking materials. Two-component road traffic marking paint is a new, solvent-free and environmentally friendly road traffic marking material. my country used to be in the 1970s Epoxy resin materials have been used, but due to the immature equipment development and construction technology at that time, they have not been widely used. The basic principle is that the base material and the curing agent are mixed in proportion, and the two chemically react and cure into a tough paint film in a relatively short time. Now the two-component road traffic marking material has been successfully used in the United States, Germany and other Western countries , my country’s Shanxi and other places also have some successful applications, which is a new trend in the development of road traffic marking materials.
Marking tape is a kind of adhesive product. Its biggest feature is that the construction is very simple. The high-quality marking tape, made of very good chemical synthetic materials, is hard, soft, easy to construct, and has excellent underwater reflective functions. Some products can also be freely pasted and removed without damaging the road surface. In the United States, Western Europe, Japan and other developed countries, the application of marking tape is more common. Due to cost issues, road traffic markings in our country have not been widely used, and are mainly used on non-lane markings such as crosswalk zebra crossings, diversion lines, stop lines and lane indicator arrow markings. Figure 16 shows the two ends of the hot-melt zebra crossing on the sidewalk near Wuxiang Square in Nanning, Guangxi, as well as the parking line, which are all-weather rainy night marking strips pasted on. In rainy nights, the reflective effect is ideal. Figure 17 is a road construction worker in Nanning, Guangxi, pasting a cut all-weather rainy night marking tape.

With the development of society and technology, the development trend of road traffic marking materials has several characteristics: reduce the pollution of the surrounding environment from the manufacture and use of materials; extend the service life of the markings and make them economical and practical ; Improve the visibility of markings-through the process of premixing retroreflective materials such as glass beads in the marking paint, improve the night visibility of markings, especially through the upgrade of the reflective unit material, providing it in a humid environment And visibility of markings under rainy night conditions.
With the emergence of all-weather reverse marking technology, the traditional technical standards for measuring markings include the assessment of adhesion performance, wear resistance, weather resistance, anti-pollution and discoloration performance, non-slip performance, construction performance, etc. of marking lines. Increased rainy night reflective performance and brightness performance indicators.
The traditional road traffic marking reflective paint uses ordinary glass beads. This kind of retro-reflective material has already introduced its reflective properties in the previous article. When light enters another medium from one medium, it will be refracted. Therefore, when the road is dry, the light from the car lights enters the glass directly from the air. The beads are then reflected back into the air, without the presence of other media, the reflected light can be directly transmitted to the vicinity of the light source, and be found by the driver, as shown in Figure 18; but once it rains or the ground is wet, this traditional Because the reflective elements are wetted by rain, the marking lines need to pass through the water film after passing through the air. This adds a medium to change the reflection path of the light, as shown in Figure 19. The light irradiation path when a water film appears on the glass bead surface is shown in Figure 20. When there is a water film on the glass bead, a lot of light cannot pass through the water film to form retroreflection, which affects the ability of retroreflection. Without the retroreflective function, the markings will not be bright, and the driver can't see the road and lane. It is easy to cause traffic accidents in the rainy night.

How to ensure that traffic markings have the same reflective effect when it rains and when it is not raining has long been a difficult problem in the traffic marking material industry.
In 2007, the all-weather reflective road marking paint with real underwater reflective ability came out. As the name implies, all-weather reflection is that this kind of marking can not only reflect light in the night and day on a clear day, but also at night on a rainy day. It can prompt road users to drive routes and help reduce the occurrence of traffic accidents on rainy nights rate.
The reflective element used in the all-weather rainy night marking is no longer a single reflective element structure, but a retroreflective system composed of two reflective elements. A glass bead that can be retroreflected in a dry environment, and a special synthetic microcrystalline ceramic microbead that cannot be retroreflected in a dry environment. The reflection of light has a deflection angle and requires a water film. Participation can complete the retroreflection and return the light to the direction of the light source, thus completing the process of retroreflection. Figure 21 shows the microcrystalline ceramic beads. Under the action of the water film, the light is directionally bent, forming a retroreflective effect.
All-weather reflective road traffic markings can be water-based paints, hot-melt paints, two-component paints and marking tapes. According to the climatic characteristics and road environmental conditions of the area of use, the ratio of rainy night reflective ceramic beads with unique reflective properties and ordinary reflective glass beads can be used to make the markings reflect light under water and dry roads. Refer to Figure 22 for the experimental and practical effects of all-weather reflective road traffic marking water reflection. Figure 24 is the angle and distance in the measurement of the retroreflective coefficient of the marking line in the national standard of our country.

Correctly distinguish the related technical concepts of road traffic reflective lines
In recent years, the development of road traffic in my country has made considerable progress. Of course, it is not difficult to find that due to the rapid development of roads, there is a huge demand for traffic markings. This high-speed growth has also led to some marking product technologies, which are used hastily when they are not mature, resulting in some markings. Issues such as quality, planning process and service life. These difficulties not only lead to hidden dangers in road traffic safety, but also affect the confidence of industry insiders in the reverse line. To speed up the resolution of this problem and enable China's road marking industry to develop quickly and well, it is necessary to establish the following technical concepts.
(1) The life of road traffic marking materials and the life of road traffic marking materials' reflective brightness are two different concepts
The life of the road traffic marking material is the time for the indicator line material to be worn away, which is the so-called abrasion resistance. Different marking materials, their film-forming substances (components), different fillers, and different thicknesses will all affect their wear resistance.
In terms of the film-forming substance itself, the film-forming of a single-component substance is generally not as good as the two-component or multi-component reactive film-forming film, but the film thickness can greatly change the abrasion resistance of the single-component film-forming substance . Usually what we are talking about is the life of the marking material itself, not the life of the reflective brightness. The life of the reflective brightness refers to the time when the reflective performance of the traffic marking material meets the standard brightness, that is, the durability of the reflective brightness of the traffic marking. It is two different concepts from the life span of the traffic marking material itself. For example, cold paint, cold paint markings are completely worn off on the road for 3-5 months, but its reflective brightness life is zero; hot melt paint has a wear life of 2 years, while its reflective brightness life is only 3 -6 months, Table 2 is the comparison of the reflective brightness of different coatings (the data of the marking tape comes from the 380IES marking tape of 3M Company in the United States).

Reflective raised road signs:

The concept and function of rising road signs
Protruding road signs are protruding marking blocks that are installed and fixed on the road and protrude from the road surface to act as markings. They are commonly known as "road spikes". The function of the raised road sign is to mark the center line, lane dividing line, and edge line on expressways or other roads; it can also be used to mark curves, entrance and exit ramps, diversion markings, narrowing of roads, and road obstacles. Wait for dangerous sections.
Protruding road signs with reflective characteristics are of great significance in safety guidance. Because the raised road signs have high reflective brightness and good warning effect, they are usually installed on both sides of the traffic lane and on the center line. Under the illumination of night lights, the outline of the lane can be outlined, providing the driver with a clear and bright road driving environment. A very important safety warning function, is an important retroreflective traffic safety facility, which has been widely used in my country's high-grade highways and urban roads.
Classification of protruding road signs
At present, protruding road signs are divided into four types: ordinary type, reflective type, light-emitting type and combined type according to whether they have retroreflective performance and active light-emitting performance. Protruding road signs are generally rectangular, circular or elliptical, with a side length or diameter between 100mm and 200mm, as shown in Figure 27.

The common base materials of raised road signs include plastic, metal, glass and other materials. The reflectors include reflectors, glass beads, reflective films, etc., which can be divided into white, red, and yellow colors. Reflective raised road signs can be divided into single-sided reflective and double-sided reflective. Single-sided reflective is generally white instead of edge line and lane line; double-sided reflective is generally yellow, which is set on the road isolation belt instead of central yellow line. Figure 28 shows several typical reflective bump road signs.
Reflective raised road signs
Figure 29 New reflective cat's eye road stud
Figure 29 New reflective cat's eye road studs (2 photos)
Reflective protruding road signs include prism-type and lens-type structures according to their different light-reflecting principles. Reflective protruding road signs can retroreflect the light irradiated by car lights at night, usually by embedding reflective wafers on substrates or bases of different shapes, and sometimes may also be pasted with reflective film on the base. Such protruding road signs may have different shapes and materials, such as aluminum or engineering plastics. They are all the same in terms of function. They display road contours, divide lanes, and serve as night reflections, rainy night reflections, and vibration prompts.
The color of the reflective protruding road sign usually corresponds to the color of the road traffic markings, mainly white and yellow, which cooperate with the road traffic markings at night to play a corresponding safety role. Red reflective protruding road signs are relatively rare and are usually only used in special areas. There is also a protruding road sign commonly known as "cat's eye", which is usually a hemispherical sphere, the base is made of glass, and the outer surface of the base is a metal reflective layer, which uses the reflection principle of glass beads to produce retro-reflected light. Using different colored glass materials or different colored reflective surfaces, the "cat's eye" can form a reflective effect of different colors when reflecting light. As shown in Figure 29
Since the reflective protruding road sign has a certain height, the general rainwater cannot be submerged or stay on the surface of the reflective area of the protruding road sign, which makes the protruding road sign have a rainy night indicator function under certain conditions. Therefore, on roads where there is no condition to draw all-weather rainy night reflective markings, pasting reflective protruding road signs can also play a certain role as an all-weather reminder.
Solar protruding road signs
Solar protruding road signs generally integrate reflective and luminous functions, that is, they have the retro-reflective function of reflective protruding road signs and can emit light by accumulating solar energy. Solar protruding road signs use solar panels to absorb sunlight during the day and convert solar energy into electrical energy. At night, the electrical energy in the energy storage device is automatically converted into light energy, which emits bright light to outline the road and induce the driver's sight. Compared with ordinary reflective protruding road signs, solar protruding road signs have two most important features: one is the large luminous brightness, which is more than 10 times the reflective brightness of ordinary reflective protruding road signs. Such high-intensity light can penetrate rain and fog at night and guide the driver safely and effectively. The second is active light, which flashes at a certain frequency at night, and has a strong dynamic warning effect. Active lighting can not only avoid the interference of rain and fog to the greatest extent, but also can break away from the dependence on car lights, and the visual distance is longer and the effect is better. Figure 30 shows two solar raised road signs with different shapes.

Reflective outline logo:

The concept and function of contour mark
Reflective contour markers are referred to as contour markers, which refer to reflective markers set along the edges of both sides of the road to indicate the direction of the road and the boundary of the roadway. Contour markings are mainly used on the main lines of expressways and first-class highways, as well as on ramps or connecting roads of interchanges, service areas, and parking lots. Continuously set reflective contour markings on the outer contours of these road traffic facilities, mainly for the purpose of Instruct road users the direction of the road and the boundary of the roadway to ensure safe driving at night. The outline markers can be set as needed when they are used on other roads and sections.
Classification and structure of contour marks
According to the setting conditions, the outline markers can be divided into column outline markers embedded on the ground and attached outline markers attached to structures; according to different shapes, they can be divided into column, trapezoidal, circular and rectangular; column outline markers according to them The different characteristics of the column material can be divided into ordinary column contour markers and elastic column contour markers.
1 The structure and composition of the contour mark embedded in the ground
Under normal circumstances, the contour markers embedded on the ground have relatively uniform specifications in China. It is composed of a cylinder and a reflector. The column is a rounded, triangular-section column, the top surface is oblique to the roadway, the column is white, there is a 25cm-long black mark on the upper part of the column, and a 18cm×4cm reflector is inlaid in the middle of the black mark. The reflector is divided into white and yellow. The white reflector is installed on the right side of the road, and the yellow reflector is installed on the left side of the road or on the central separation belt. The contour mark adopts the concrete foundation, and the connection between the column and the foundation can be assembled and installed. The contour mark structure embedded in the ground is shown in Figure 31.
2 The structure and composition of the attached contour mark
Contour markers attached to various types of buildings are composed of reflectors, brackets and connectors. Different shapes of outline markers and different connection methods can be used according to the type of building and the buried position.
(1) When the contour mark is attached to the groove between the corrugated beam guardrail, the shape of the reflector is trapezoidal, and the bracket is made into a closed type.
Fix it on the connecting bolts between the guardrail and the column, as shown in Figure 32.

(2) In areas where there is often fog, sand, rain, snow, heavy rain, etc., the contour markers can be installed on the upper edge of the corrugated guardrail board (as shown in Figure 33) or on the pillars of the corrugated beam guardrail. Generally, a circular reflector with a diameter of 10 cm is used. This type of contour marking can be divided into two types: single-sided reflection (Type A) and double-sided reflection (Type B). Type B is suitable for occasions that need to provide line-of-sight guidance for the opposite lane (such as the central partition), as shown in Figure 34. Show.

(3) The outline mark attached to the cable guardrail can be fixed on the cable by a clamp, as shown in Figure 35.
(4) Contour marks attached to side walls, including those installed on tunnel walls, retaining walls, bridge piers, platform side walls, and concrete barriers
For the contour mark at the other places, a rectangular or other shape reflector can be used.

3 Retroreflective materials for contour marking
There are many forms and types of outline markers, some of which have conventional basic shapes (see Figure 37), and some are made temporarily according to local conditions according to specific road conditions. Therefore, the retroreflective materials used on the contour markings are also varied, from plastic reflectors similar to those used in car taillights, to various flexible reflective materials for clothing (also divided into prisms and glass beads), to traffic Reflective films for signs have their own applications.
(1) Contour markers should use reflective materials with high reflective performance to improve the ability to draw road alignments and prompt roadside facilities at a long distance; in terms of the characteristics of contour markers, according to the purpose of use and material characteristics, there are several points that should be clearly:
(2) For contour markings in front of bends and beside broad roads, use reflective materials with good reflective properties at large angles as much as possible to take care of the visual recognition of different positions during the journey;
(3) Reflective materials with superior weather resistance should be used, especially considering that the contour markers have no structure of their own and should generally be attached to other facilities, and it is better to avoid chemical reactions with the materials on the surface of these facilities;
(4) The convenience of construction and maintenance should be fully considered, and the damage to other facilities caused by the installation of outline signs should be avoided as much as possible.

Overview of retroreflective materials for clothing:
With the development of modern road traffic, the number of people performing tasks and operations on the roads continues to increase. In addition, with the acceleration of urban development, the gap between urban and rural areas is getting smaller and smaller, and more and more people will walk out at night. At home, exercise and various social activities are carried out in public places such as outdoors, city streets and squares. In this context, a material is needed to attach to the clothes of people engaged in road construction at night or other activities on the road In order to ensure the safety of pedestrians on the road, the clothing is made to reflect light under the light to remind motor vehicle drivers that they can clearly notice "people on the road".
In Europe, there is a well-known VIV legislation. The so-called VIV is the abbreviation of Vest In Vehicle, which means that every motor vehicle must have a reflective vest to ensure that the driver can wear a reflective vest when getting off the car for some reason. Vest to protect yourself and reduce the chance of accidents.
Reflective materials for clothing were first applied to professional clothing for road traffic management and service personnel. Such as: traffic command, traffic co-management, environmental sanitation personnel, road construction personnel, etc. Reflective work clothes are generally made by sewing some clothing with reflective materials on certain specific parts of the occupation. It is also possible to separately make a reflective vest and put it on the coat. This kind of clothing is made of retroreflective material. Reflective clothing is called high-visibility warning clothing. High-visibility warning clothing has become a special occupational protective clothing for road traffic management and service personnel.
Due to the complicated road traffic conditions in my country, personnel and pedestrians working on highways must strengthen safety protection. Therefore, high-visibility warning clothing should be the first choice for protective clothing. Personnel wearing high-quality warning uniforms can enable the driver to detect his presence hundreds of meters away, whether it is day or night, and react and take measures to avoid accidents. Occupational high-visibility warning clothing can visually show the presence of the wearer. The fluorescent fabrics and reflective materials used in the daytime and under the illumination of the headlights at night ensure that the wearer has a certain degree of visibility , When a dangerous situation occurs, the driver can find the person ahead earlier and in time, so that there is enough time to brake or evade action to avoid traffic accidents.
Reflective materials used on high-visibility warning suits are usually glass bead type and micro-lattice type, which are composed of base materials with eye-catching colors and retro-reflective materials (reflective materials). Due to the dual effects of fluorescence and reflection, the wearer can form a sharp contrast with the surrounding environment no matter whether it is day or night (or dark background) under the light, which is clearly visible, so that the driver has enough time to stop or take evasive actions , Which can more effectively play a role in safety protection for practitioners.
The color of the fluorescent material used in the high-visibility warning suit is mainly used for eye-catching in the daytime, and three very eye-catching colors are commonly used: fluorescent yellow, fluorescent orange and fluorescent red. Reflective materials can be used for the safety protection of professionals. For example, reflective tapes, reflective films and reflective signs also provide safety protection for outdoor athletes, pedestrians and cyclists. At the emergency rescue site, reflective materials ensure that first responders, firefighters and policemen are visible in smoke, rain, and dim places.
Glass bead type reflective material-reflective cloth
Reflective clothing made of reflective cloth is also a product that is widely used in the field of traffic safety. Traffic managers, firefighters, road administrators, road construction and cleaning personnel in China have adopted this type of clothing as part of their work clothing. Reflective fabrics are mainly divided into three categories: heat-sensitive, pressure-sensitive and stitched:
(1) Thermal transfer film
The heat-sensitive transfer film is composed of wide-angle, exposed retro-reflective glass beads glued on the heat-activated glue, and it can be used together with different fabrics at a certain temperature, pressure and suitable time. It can also be welded and engraved. , Screen printing, embossing, piping use.
(2) Pressure sensitive transfer film
The pressure-sensitive transfer film is composed of wide-angle, exposed retro-reflective glass beads bonded to a durable fabric, and a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) is applied to the back of the cloth bottom. It can be directly pasted on the fabric.
(3) Sewing type reflective cloth
The stitched reflective cloth is composed of wide-angle, exposed retro-reflective glass beads glued on various fabric backings. It has a strong cloth base and is usually sewn on other fabrics or substrates.
The above three types of reflective fabrics have the same characteristics: high reflective strength, excellent washing performance, excellent wear resistance, safety and environmental protection, and can be in direct contact with human skin. Significantly improves the extent that the wearer can be found in the most vulnerable environment such as dark light or at night, and greatly reduces the occurrence of many dangerous accidents. The application of heat-sensitive transfer film, pressure-sensitive transfer film and sewing-type reflective cloth is shown in Figure 39a, Figure 39b, Figure 39c.

Reflective lattice
The high-brightness reflective lattice products are composed of highly reflective microprisms bonded on a flexible, shiny and UV resistant polymer film. It has a strong plastic base, which is joined to other fabrics or substrates, which significantly improves the extent that the wearer can be found in the most vulnerable environment such as dark light or at night, and greatly reduces the occurrence of many dangerous accidents. .
High-brightness lattice reflective products can be sealed to the plastic liner for use, and can be processed directly without sealing. It can be sewn or welded to a suitable fabric or substrate with mid/high frequency. Reflective lattice products have the characteristics of rich and changeable colors, high reflective intensity, easy coloring, and excellent rain performance. The application of various reflective lattices is shown in Figure 40.

In the evolution of retroreflective technology for more than 70 years, mankind has gradually recognized and mastered retroreflective technology that is more in line with the needs of traffic visual recognition, and has launched generations of reflective products that better meet the needs of reading. Reflective clothing and reflective signs for personal and vehicle safety protection provide energy-saving and environmentally-friendly proactive accident prevention measures for various road use elements... The comprehensive use of these materials, methods and technologies greatly reduces the impact on various types of traffic. The demand for lighting and electricity for safety facilities has reduced road traffic costs, saved a large number of lives, and reduced countless energy consumption and emissions.
In short, retroreflective materials for traffic safety facilities are a type of product specially invented by humans in order to increase the safe visual range and increase the safety of traffic operations. Faced with the vast earth road network and the 24-hour all-weather change of sight distance, retroreflective materials embody human wisdom and are a concrete manifestation of the scientific development concept. It uses scientific methods to improve the lighting value of car lights, and provides energy-saving, environmentally friendly, and safe safeguards for human production activities and life. Therefore, the widespread and popularization of advanced retroreflective materials can greatly improve human travel Safety conditions. It can be said that mastering the knowledge and application of retroreflective technology is an important basic quality for traffic engineering and traffic management professionals from all over the world, and it also reflects the level of scientific development and awareness of progress in a country and region.

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