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End mill (1038)

cheap end mills
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End mills are the most commonly used milling cutters on CNC machine tools. There are cutters on the cylindrical surface and end surface of the end mills. They can cut at the same time or separately. Mainly used for plane milling, groove milling, step face milling and profile milling.
The purpose of end mills:
Face milling
End mills can be used for face milling. However, because the entering angle is 90°, the tool force is mainly radial force in addition to the main cutting force, which is easy to cause flexure and deformation of the tool bar, and also easy to cause vibration, which affects the processing efficiency. Therefore, it is similar to thin-bottomed workpieces. Except for special reasons such as the need for small axial force or occasional reduction of tool inventory for face milling, it is not recommended to use end mills to machine flat surfaces without steps.
Side wall face milling
Most of the workpieces suitable for end milling have one or more side wall surfaces perpendicular to the bottom surface (this surface is parallel to the milling machine spindle), which brings about a problem that is not in face milling: side wall shape and accuracy problems .
Milling cutter classification:
There are many types of milling cutter shapes, such as ordinary milling machines and CNC milling machines for processing grooves and linear contours, milling and boring machining centers for machining cavities, cores, and surface contours/contours.
The milling cutter is roughly divided into:
1. Flat-end milling cutter: for fine milling or rough milling, milling grooves, removing a large amount of blanks, small area horizontal plane or contour fine milling;
2. Ball end milling cutter: semi-finishing and finishing milling of curved surfaces; small cutters can finish milling small chamfers on steep surfaces/straight walls.
3. Round nose milling cutter: for rough milling with small surface changes, fewer narrow and concave areas, and more relatively flat areas.
4. Flat-end milling cutter: With chamfering, it can be used for rough milling to remove a large amount of blanks, and also for fine milling of small chamfers on the flat surface (relative to the steep surface).
5. Forming milling cutters: including chamfering cutters, T-shaped cutters or drum cutters, tooth-shaped cutters, and inner R cutters.
6. Chamfering cutter: the shape of the chamfering cutter is the same as the chamfering shape, and it is divided into milling cutters for round chamfering and bevel chamfering.
7. T-shaped knife: can mill T-slots.
8. Tooth type cutter: mill various types of teeth, such as gears.
9. Rough leather cutter: Rough milling cutter designed for cutting aluminum-copper alloy, which can be processed quickly.
There are two common materials for milling cutters: high-speed steel and cemented carbide. Compared with the former, the latter has higher hardness and strong cutting force, which can increase the speed and feed rate, increase productivity, make the knife inconspicuous, and process difficult-to-machine materials such as stainless steel and titanium alloy, but the cost is higher, and the cutting force changes rapidly. Under the circumstances, the knife is easy to break.
Clamping of the end mill:

Most of the end mills used in machining centers adopt the spring clamp set clamping method, which is in a cantilever state during use. During the milling process, sometimes the end mill may gradually protrude from the tool holder, or even fall completely, causing the workpiece to be scrapped. The reason is generally between the inner hole of the tool holder and the outer diameter of the end mill tool holder. There is an oil film, resulting in insufficient clamping force. End mills are usually coated with anti-rust oil when they leave the factory. If water-insoluble cutting oil is used during cutting, a misty oil film will also be attached to the inner hole of the tool holder. When there is an oil film on both the tool holder and the tool holder, the tool holder It is difficult to clamp the tool holder firmly, and the end mill is easy to loosen and fall during processing. Therefore, before the end mill is clamped, the shank of the end mill and the inner hole of the tool holder should be cleaned with cleaning fluid, and then clamped after drying.
When the diameter of the end mill is large, even if the tool holder and the tool holder are very clean, a tool drop accident may still occur. At this time, the tool holder with a flat notch and the corresponding side locking method should be selected.
Another problem that may occur after the end mill is clamped is that the end mill is broken at the tool holder port during processing. The reason is generally because the tool holder has been used for too long, and the tool holder port has been worn into a tapered shape. The tool holder should be replaced with a new one.

End mill vibration:

Due to the tiny gap between the end mill and the tool holder, the tool may vibrate during the machining process. Vibration will cause uneven cutting of the peripheral edge of the end mill, and the cutting and spreading amount will be larger than the original value, which will affect the machining accuracy and tool life. But when the processed groove width is too small, the tool can also be purposefully vibrated, and the required groove width can be obtained by increasing the cutting and expanding amount. In this case, the maximum amplitude of the end mill should be limited to less than 0.02mm , Otherwise stable cutting cannot be performed. In normal processing, the vibration of the end mill is as small as possible.
When tool vibration occurs, you should consider reducing the cutting speed and feed rate. If both have been reduced by 40% and there is still greater vibration, you should consider reducing the amount of tooling.
If the processing system resonates, the reason may be that the cutting speed is too high, the feed speed is too small, the tool system is not rigid enough, the workpiece clamping force is not enough, the workpiece shape or the workpiece clamping method, etc., should be adjusted at this time. Measures such as increasing the rigidity of the tool system and increasing the feed rate.
End cutting:

In the numerical control milling of the cavity of a workpiece such as a mold, when the cut point is a concave part or a deep cavity, the extension of the end mill needs to be lengthened. If a long-edged end mill is used, due to the large deflection of the tool, it is easy to generate vibration and cause the tool to break. Therefore, in the machining process, if only the cutting edge near the end of the tool is required to participate in the cutting, it is best to choose a short-edged long-shank end mill with a longer total tool length. When using a large-diameter end mill on a horizontal CNC machine tool to process a workpiece, the deformation caused by the weight of the tool is relatively large, and more attention should be paid to the problems that are prone to edge cutting. In the case of a long-edged end mill must be used, the cutting speed and feed rate must be greatly reduced.
Cutting parameters:

Cutting speed
The choice of cutting speed mainly depends on the material of the workpiece to be processed; the choice of feed speed mainly depends on the material of the workpiece to be processed and the diameter of the end mill. The tool samples of some foreign tool manufacturers are attached with a tool cutting parameter selection table for reference. However, the selection of cutting parameters is also affected by many factors such as the machine tool, the tool system, the shape of the workpiece to be processed, and the clamping method. The cutting speed and feed rate should be adjusted appropriately according to the actual situation.
When the tool life is the priority factor, the cutting speed and feed speed can be appropriately reduced; when the chip leaving the edge condition is not good, the cutting speed can be appropriately increased.
Up-down milling
Climbing milling helps prevent damage to the cutting edge and can increase tool life. However, there are two points to pay attention to: ① If using ordinary machine tools, try to eliminate the gap of the feed mechanism; ② When the surface of the workpiece is left with the oxide film or other hardened layers formed by the casting or forging process, it is advisable to adopt up-cut milling.
Tool material
The use range and use requirements of high-speed steel end mills are relatively wide, and even if the cutting conditions are slightly improperly selected, there will be no major problems. Although cemented carbide end mills have good wear resistance during high-speed cutting, they are not as widely used as high-speed steel end mills, and the cutting conditions must strictly meet the requirements of the tool.

There are many types of end mills, with different shapes. It has flat-end milling cutters, ball-end milling cutters, flat-end milling cutters with chamfering, forming milling cutters, chamfering cutters, T-shaped cutters, toothed cutters, and rough leather cutters.
Among them, the flat-end milling cutter can be used for rough milling. Its main function is to remove a large amount of blanks, as well as a small area of horizontal plane or can be used for contour finishing; while for curved surface semi-finishing and finishing milling, there are balls. Head milling cutter, which can finish milling steep surfaces and small chamfers on straight walls; flat-head milling cutters with chamfers that can be used for rough milling to remove a large amount of blanks, this kind of small chamfers that can be used for fine milling of fine flat surfaces , It also includes chamfering cutters; T-shaped cutters are also called drum cutters, tooth-shaped cutters; and forming milling cutters, chamfering cutters have the same shape and chamfering shapes; chamfering cutters are divided into milling and chamfering As with bevel and chamfer milling cutters, T-shaped cutters can mill T-slots, and tooth-shaped cutters can mill various tooth shapes. There is also a rough milling cutter specially designed for cutting aluminum-copper alloys, which can be processed quickly.
 A milling cutter is a rotary cutter with one or more teeth used for milling. When working, each cutter tooth intermittently cuts off the margin of the workpiece. Milling cutters are mainly used for machining planes, steps, grooves, forming surfaces and cutting off workpieces on milling machines.
1. Cylindrical milling cutter
It is used for processing planes on horizontal milling machines. The cutter teeth are distributed on the circumference of the milling cutter. According to the tooth shape, they are divided into straight teeth and spiral teeth. According to the number of teeth, there are two types: coarse teeth and fine teeth. The helical coarse-tooth milling cutter has fewer teeth, high tooth strength and large chip space, suitable for rough machining; fine-tooth milling cutters are suitable for finishing.
2. Face milling cutter
Also known as disc milling cutter, it is used to process plane on vertical milling machine, face milling machine or gantry milling machine. There are cutter teeth on the end face and circumference, and there are also coarse and fine teeth. Its structure has three types: integral type, insert type and indexable type.
3. End mill
It is used for processing grooves and step surfaces, etc. The cutter teeth are on the circumference and end surface, and cannot be fed along the axial direction when working. When the end mill has end teeth passing through the center, it can feed axially.
4. Three-sided edge milling cutter
It is used for processing various grooves and stepped surfaces, and there are cutter teeth on both sides and circumference.
5. Angle milling cutter
It is used for milling grooves at a certain angle, and there are two kinds of single-angle and double-angle milling cutters.
6. Saw blade milling cutter
It is used to process deep grooves and cut off workpieces, with more teeth on the circumference. In order to reduce friction during milling, there are 15'~1° secondary deflection angles on both sides of the cutter teeth. In addition, there are keyway milling cutters, dovetail milling cutters, T-slot milling cutters and various forming milling cutters.
7. T-shaped milling cutter
Used to mill T-slots.

8. Sharp tooth milling cutter
A narrow cutting edge is ground on the flank surface to form a relief angle. Due to the reasonable cutting angle, its life is longer. The tooth back of the sharp tooth milling cutter has three forms: straight line, curve and broken line. Straight tooth backs are often used for finishing milling cutters with fine teeth. Curved and broken-line tooth backs have better tooth strength and can withstand heavier cutting loads, and are often used for coarse-tooth milling cutters.
9. Relieve tooth milling cutter
The back of it is processed into Archimedes spiral tooth back by shoveling (or relief grinding) method. After the milling cutter is blunt, only the front needs to be reground, which can keep the original tooth profile unchanged. It is used to make gear milling cutters, etc. Various forming cutters.
【The main purpose】
1. Flat-end milling cutter, rough milling, remove a large amount of blanks, small area horizontal plane or contour finish milling.

2. Ball end milling cutter, semi-finishing and finishing milling of curved surfaces; small ball end milling cutter can finish milling steep surfaces/small chamfers of straight walls and irregular contour surfaces.
3. The flat-end milling cutter has a chamfer, which can be used for rough milling to remove a large amount of blanks, and also for fine milling of small chamfers on the flat surface (relative to the steep surface).
4. Forming milling cutters include chamfering cutters, T-shaped cutters or drum cutters, tooth cutters, and inner R cutters.
5. Chamfering cutter, the shape of the chamfering cutter is the same as the chamfering shape, and it is divided into milling cutters for round chamfering and oblique chamfering.
6. T-shaped knife can mill T-slots.
7. Tooth type cutter, mills various tooth types, such as gears.
8. Rough leather cutter, rough milling cutter designed for cutting aluminum-copper alloy, can be processed quickly.
Milling cutters have a large number of teeth, which can improve production efficiency. However, due to the limitations of chip space, cutter tooth strength, machine power and rigidity, etc., the number of teeth of milling cutters with different diameters has corresponding regulations. In order to meet the needs of different users, milling cutters of the same diameter generally have three types: coarse teeth, medium teeth, and dense teeth.
Coarse-tooth milling cutter: suitable for large margin roughing of ordinary machine tools and milling of soft materials or larger cutting widths; when the power of the machine is small, in order to make cutting stable, coarse-tooth milling cutters are often used.

Middle tooth milling cutter: It is a general-purpose series, with a wide range of applications, with high metal removal rate and cutting stability.

Close-tooth milling cutter: Mainly used for high-feed speed cutting of cast iron, aluminum alloy and non-ferrous metals. In specialized production (such as assembly line processing), in order to make full use of equipment power and meet the requirements of production rhythm, close-tooth milling cutters are often used (in this case, special non-standard milling cutters).

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